2013年职称英语理工类语法精讲(一)

  

  语态是动词的一种方法,它表现主语和谓语的关系。语态有两种:主动语态和主动语态。假设主语是举措的履行者,或许是说举措是由主语完成的,要用主动语态;假设主语是举措的接受者,或许是说举措不是由主语而是由其他人完成的,则用主动语态。

  1、主动语态考点聚焦

  (一)主动语态的概念:

  不知道或没需要提到举措的履行者是谁时用主动语态。强调或凸起举措的接受者经常使用主动语态(by短语有时可以省略)。

  (二)主动语态的构成方法:

  be + 过去分词,白话只也有效get / become + 过去分词表现。

  (三)主动语态的基本用法:

  (1)应用主动语态时应留心的几个后果。

  ①主动变更主动时双宾语的变更。看以下例句。

  My friend gave me an interesting book on my birthday.

  An interesting book was given to me(by my friend)on my birthday.

  I was given an interesting book (by my friend)on my birthday.

  ②主动变主动时,宾补成主补(位置不变);(作补语的)不定式前需加to.

  The boss made him work all day long.

  He was made to work all day long(by the boss)

  ③短语动词变主动语态时,勿要掉落"尾巴".

  The children were taken good care of (by her).

  Your pronunciation and spelling should be paid attention to.

  ④神志动词和be going to、be to、be sure to、used to、have to、had better等结构变主动语态, 只需将它们前面的动词本相变成be +过去分词。

  ⑤当句子的谓语为say、believe、expect、think、know、write、consider、report等时,主动语态有两种方法:(A)谓语动词用主动语态,动词不定式作主补。(B)用it作方法主语,真实的主语在前面用主语在前面用主语从句来表现。如:

  People say he is a smart boy.

  It is said that he is a smart boy.

  He is said to be a smart boy.

  People know paper was made in China first.

  It is known that paper was made in China first.

  Paper was known to be made in China first.

  相似句型有:It is said / known / suggested / believed / hoped/ thought that …

  (2)不能用主动语态的几种状况。

  ①一切的不及物动词或不及物动词词组不能用于主动语态当中。

  ②表现形状的谓语动词,如:last、hold、benefit、contain、equal、fit、join、mean、last、look like、consist to等。

  ③表现归属的动词,如have、own、belong to等。